By O. Garik. Daemen College. 2018.
Every human being requires sexual satisfaction and may achieve it in different ways sildigra 50 mg without a prescription erectile dysfunction under 40, but such satisfaction should always exist so that the remain- ing normal metabolic functions work properly purchase sildigra 25 mg line impotence vacuum pump. Sexuality has a ‘‘physiological’’ manifes- tation characterized by the urge to elicit ‘‘organic functions and reactions,’’ and a ‘‘spiritual’’ manifestation characterized by the need to arouse ‘‘emotions. A proper balance is needed among diet, evacuation, work, sleep, and exercise. Tight dresses, jeans, and unnecessary elastic hoses do not help the intestinal lymph adipose system in its functions or the cutaneous microcirculatory sys- tem, thus favoring cellulite pathologies of the metabolic hypoxic type. It certainly slows down microcirculation in the cutaneous arterioles and is thus lipogenetic, generating the cutaneous hypoxia traditionally known as peau d’orange. On the other hand, hormone and thyroid stimulation induced by smoke itself activates noradrenaline and speeds up tissue catabolic processes, thus favoring lipolysis at the subcutaneous level. Finally, in order to balance cutaneous peau d’orange, subcu- taneous lipolysis occurs. However, permanent and deceitful damages in the interstitium, due to an excess of free radicals when defense mechanisms such as superoxide-dismutase fail, should also be assessed. PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF CELLULITE & 49 & The intake of estro-progestagens such as those included in birth-control pills and food preservatives favors interstitial liquid retention generating endothelial edema and acti- vating Fenton reactions (Fe–Ca). The process inevitably generates some form or other of lipedema and lipolymphedema, which in their turn result in lipodystrophy. Besides, women who are administered hormones show a high level of free radicals as may be easily seen in reactive oxygen metabolites (ROMs) test (17,18). TRIGGERING FACTORS Several factors should be highlighted: & Obesity and overweight: All forms of overweight are characterized by an increase of fat in subcutaneous tissues. In normal interstitial and microcirculatory exchanges, adipose cells interfere with water, oxygen, and protein ions, unleashing processes that alter the interstitium due to hyperinsulinemia. It is a frequent pathology of glutei and lower limbs in women. According to Campisi (19), lymphedema is characterized by a state of tumescence of sup- erﬁcial soft tissues originating from a stasis that increases the amount of high-protein-content Lipolymphedema. PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF CELLULITE & 51 lymph in the interstitial space, a phenomenon characterized by primary and/or secondary alterations in transport routes. Lipedema instead, is a speciﬁc syndrome of almost unknown etiology at present, which is characterized by fatty tissue and subcutaneous liquid deposits (particularly in the lower limbs and glutei) that may or may not be associated with lymphedema and/or lipodystrophy. In 1940, Hallen and Hynes ﬁrst described lipedema as an accumulation of subcutaneous fat accompanied by hard edema of the leg except the feet. Subsequent deﬁnitions always remarked Merlen’s observation that it involved ‘‘foot hypothermia with a signiﬁcant difference in local temperature. This pathology, often cursorily deﬁned as lymphedema, venous insufﬁciency, or cellulite, is widespread among 65% of women between 14 and 35 years of age, and the percentage increases among individuals over 40 years under the form of lipodystrophy and/or lipolymphedema. In this instance, venous insufﬁciency is absent or is present only as a secondary trait, but a positive correlation with the peripheral metabolism of fatty tissues may be observed. Although incomplete, the following physiopathological considerations derive in part from recent studies in microangiology, personal clinical observations, and response to a treat- ment protocol applied to over 500 patients between October 1, 1995, and December 30, 1999. This protocol foresees the combination of several traditional and natural methodol- ogies aimed not only at local therapy but also, and mainly, at cleansing and restoring general organic balance. Cellulite is widespread among 65% of women between 14 and 35 years of age, with this percentage increasing among individuals over 40. All these authors participated in the scientiﬁc works of the Phlebolymphology Center of the University of Siena where, under the direction of Prof. Sergio Mancini, many interesting studies about aesthetic pathologies of legs was organized. Our starting hypothesis was that the metabolism of the interstitial matrix and the adipocytic activity are fundamental in the manifestations of lipolymphedema and various forms of cellulite disease. We further noticed that there is a preferential adipocyte–lymph route, so that the hypothesized functional lymph–adipose system might provide local metabolic control and originate degenerative pathologies. These hypotheses have been conﬁrmed by the recent studies on the function and role of the extracellular matrix in the economy of the metabolism of all the tissues today. LYMPH Lymph is a ﬂuid generated in the argentophilic cells of every tissue. It is formed in the inter- stitial matrix and later ﬂows through the lymph vessel system.
PART I: DIAGNOSIS OF CELLULITE 2 Deﬁnition discount sildigra 120mg visa impotence kidney, Clinical Aspects effective sildigra 100mg erectile dysfunction causes and remedies, Associated Conditions, and Differential Diagnosis Doris Hexsel School of Medicine, University of Passo Fundo, Passo Fundo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil Taciana de Oliveira Dal’Forno Medical Sciences, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil Stela Cignachi School of Medicine, Lutheran University of Brazil (ULBRA) of Rio Grande do Sul, Canoas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil & DEFINITION ‘‘Cellulite’’ is a very common topographical alteration (1,2) in which the skin acquires an orange peel or mattress appearance (Fig. In this condition, alterations occur to the adipose tissue and microcirculation that result from blood and lymphatic disturbances causing ﬁbrosclerosis of the connective tissue (2). It is considered a noninﬂammatory, degenerative phenomenon that provokes alterations to the hypodermis (5) producing irre- gular undulations on the skin overlying affected areas. Cellulite results from many complex events that involve the epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous tissue (1). Anatomically, the cutaneous alterations found in cellulite are largely due to ﬁbrosis of the connective tissues present in the dermis and/or in the subcutaneous tissue (7). DEFINITION, CLINICAL ASPECTS, ASSOCIATED CONDITIONS, AND DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS & 9 connective tissue of the reticular dermis is connected to the deep fascia by means of interlobular trabeculas (ﬁbrous septum) from adipose tissue. Subcutaneous fat lobules are separated from one another by these thin, usually rigid strands of connective tissue that cross the fatty layer and connect the dermis to the underlying fascia. These strands stabilize the subcutis and divide the fat (8). The shortening of these septa due to ﬁbrosis provokes retraction at the insertion points of the trabeculas (9), causing the depressions that are characteristic of cellulite. Nurnberger and Muller studied the anatomy and histology of fat and the connective¨ tissue structure of the subcutaneous tissue. They demonstrated, on anatomical bases, the characteristic mattress aspect of cellulite and pointed out the differences in the organiza- tion of the subcutaneous tissue between the two sexes (10,11). They also showed that in women the ﬁbrous septa are usually orientated perpendicularly in relation to the cuta- neous surface, while in men they have a crisscross pattern (11). Several studies have shown that fat is divided into lobules, and that in women, these are larger and more rectangular when compared with those in men (4,11–15). These anatomical and histological ﬁndings explain the greater frequency of cellulite in women. In the same decade, Laguese described cellulite as a disease of the hypodermis, characterized by interstitial edema and an increase in fat (17). Initially, Curri deﬁned cellulite as nodular liposclerosis (6,18) and later adopted the term ‘‘cellulitic dermohypodermosis’’ (19). In 1958, Merlen deﬁned cellulite as a histoan- giopathy (20), and in 1978, Binazzi and Curri, after a histopathological study, suggested the term ‘‘sclerotic-ﬁbrous-edematous panniculopathy’’ (21,22). Nurnberger and Muller¨ used the name ‘‘panniculosis of the dermis’’ (16,23) to describe cellulite from the histo- pathological viewpoint. Bacci and Leibaschoff suggest the use of the nomenclature ‘‘cellu- litic hypodermosis’’ (16). In recent years, the term ‘‘gynoid lipodystrophy’’ has been used in some studies (2,9,24). The terms ‘‘hydrolipodystrophy’’ and ‘‘herniation’’ of the fat with hypodermic tension bands are still in use for describing cellulite (25,26). The presence of the sufﬁx ‘‘ite’’ in a medical term indicates inﬂammation; therefore, the term ‘‘cellulite’’ is more appropriately used to designate inﬂammation and/or infection of the subcutaneous tissue (27). However, the term ‘‘cellulite’’ has become very popular, and its use has been consecrated (20,28) by its being accepted throughout the world. Other synonyms often used for cellulite are listed in Table 1. There is evidence to suggest that estrogen is the element most probably involved in the initial dysfunction, aggravation, and persistence of cellulite (1,20,33). Table 1 Various Terms Describing Cellulite & Nodular liposclerosis & Cellulitic dermohypodermosis & Sclerotic-ﬁbrous-edematous panniculopathy & Panniculosis of the dermis & Cellulitic hypodermosis & Gynoid lipodystrophy & Hydrolipodystrophy & Herniation of the fat with hypodermic tension bands incidence of cellulite in the female sex, its appearance postpuberty, the worsening of the condition in relation to pregnancy, the menstrual cycle, and the use of contraceptives and hormonal replacement are cited as supporting this hypothesis (1). Cellulite normally manifests itself in areas of greatest fat accumulation, such as the buttocks, thighs (Fig. Figure 2 Areas commonly affected by cellulite are the upper parts of the thighs and buttocks. DEFINITION, CLINICAL ASPECTS, ASSOCIATED CONDITIONS, AND DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS & 11 The lesions are essentially asymptomatic.
In the higher levels of Taoist meditation the practitioner grounds him/herself in the body by channeling higher energies into the acu- puncture meridian system buy 120mg sildigra overnight delivery erectile dysfunction doctor san diego, and circulating them throughout the entire body after refining the energies into a digestible form generic 25mg sildigra free shipping how does an erectile dysfunction pump work. The practitioner has a detailed map of the body’s subtle nerve system into which he guides the released energy. He also is given precise methods for transforming his physical, emotional, and mental make- up at different stages of growth using this new energy. Each indi- vidual must tailor this “internal technology” to his specific needs and problems. Esoteric Taoism doesn’t solve ego-created prob- lems by demanding the surrendering of one’s individuality to a larger group of guru. The only devotion it demands is a disciplined committment to leading a healthy and harmonious life. Taoist Esoteric yoga is com- patible with any religious belief. The language of Taoism is not de- fined by any set of mental “beliefs”, but by the “experience” of in- creasingly subtle and powerful forms of chi energy. No mythologi- cal entities or divine symbols are evoked. But if someone chooses to identify this chi with the Christian notion of the Holy Spirit, it will not adversely affect the Taoist method of chi transformation. This holds true at the very highest levels of practice. This same Chris- tian could draw accurate parallels between the Biblical ascent of Elijah on a flaming chariot into Heaven with the Taoist formula for the seventh stage meditation, “Reunion of Man and Heaven”. Simi- lar parallels could be drawn with Buddhist Hindu, or Qabalist sym- bols of spiritual advancement. The point the Taoist masters were making is that the pattern of chi flow and balance is similar in all men, regardless of interpretive belief about their religious experi- ences. Taoist yoga is a theologically neutral method for preparing the dense physical and mental body to consciously receive a more powerful dose of cosmic yin and yang energies. Imagine the aver- age human being is accustomed to functioning on 110 volts. He cannot suddenly absorb into his conscious mind the kundalini en- ergy, which is powered by the subatomic nuclear energy that binds the universe together and is made visible in the radiant heat and - 154 - Chapter XIV light of the sun. To even double the received voltage to 220 re quires considerable conditioning of the body. The more accessible form of Kundalini power is human sexual energy. But to absorb anything above your accustomed voltage is dangerous, like being struck by lightning without a ground wire to the earth. The Taoist system of circulating chi, from the Microcosmic Orbit up to the level “reunite Man and Heaven”, is a grounding rod for Kundalini energy. Modern researchers into spiritual phenomena see the Kundilini as a possible mechanism to describe radical leaps in the evolution of human consciousness. The classic account is Gopi Krishna’s autobio- graphical “Awakening of the Kundalini’ (Shambhala Press). Gopi Krishna was an Indian railroad official who in 1937 experi- enced abrupt, dramatic physical and psychic changes as a result of his yoga practice. Energy began dancing and coursing power- fully through his body, but his initial wonderment and bliss soon faded. He was nearly incapacitated by it as the energy would not stop, sometimes leaving him tormented and sleepless for day on end. Only after twelve years of this nightmare existence was he able to learn how to balance the energy within his body and use it in a newly discovered creative life as a poet and author of a dozen books. The Kundalini Research Institute in New York City reports world- wide over a hundred cases each year of individuals who cannot explain the uncontrollable release of energies in their body, often accompanied by days of sleeplessness, ringing and hissing noises in the ears and flashes of light inside the body. Some are students of yoga or meditation whose teachers abandon them after seeing they are powerless to diagnose or help the condition. For this reason kundalini-oriented practices have earned a repu- tation as dangerous, radical, and unsafe for most westerners seek- ing what they falsely perceive as the fastest path to enlightenment. A number of students suffering from kundalini-like side effects of different meditational practices have come to Mantak Chia for advice.
Standard electrophysiological tests include NCV generic sildigra 50 mg with mastercard erectile dysfunction doctors in texas, EMG 100 mg sildigra with mastercard erectile dysfunction pills south africa, and repetitive nerve stimulation. Laboratory tests, such as creatine kinase, electrolyte assessment, and antibody testing (e. Genetic testing has become an important tool in the last twenty years, and can be used in many diseases to confirm a precise diagnosis. Some other tests, like autonomic testing (such as the Ewing battery and others) and quantitative sensory testing may not be available in some areas. MRI can be used to assess muscle inflammation and atrophy, and compression or swelling of peripheral nerves. The following description of diagnostic tools is intended to be a brief overview, with references for further reading. A peripheral nerve consists of bundles of axons surrounded by and embedded in a collagen matrix. The outer connective tissue covering is called the epineurium. The inner connective tissue that divides the axons into bundles is called the perineurium. The innermost layer of connective tissue surrounding the individual axons is called the endoneurium. Blood vessels and connective tissue cells such as macrophages, fibroblasts and mast cells are also contained within the peripheral nerve. The arrow (a) indicates an enlarged view of an indi- vidual axon and its surrounding Schwann cells. A node of Ranvier, the space between adjacent Schwann cells is de- picted as the narrowing of the sheath surrounding the axon. Each internode is formed by a single Schwann cell 9 a Fig. Sensory information is relayed from the of Schwann cell cytoplasm and membranes. The periphery towards the central nervous system Schwann cell cytoplasm is squeezed into the outer through special sensory neurons. These are pseu- portion of the Schwann cell leaving the plasma- do-unipolar neurons located within the dorsal root lemmae of the Schwann cell in close apposition. Mechanical, temper- These layers of Schwann cell membrane contain ature and noxious stimuli are transduced by spe- specialized proteins and lipids and are known as cial receptors in the skin into action potentials that the myelin sheath. Above: Peripheral axons are are transmitted to the sensory neuron. This neuron surrounded by as series of Schwann cells. The then relays the impulse to the dorsal horn of the space between adjacent Schwann cells are called spinal cord Nodes of Ranvier (*). The nodes contain no myelin but are covered by the outer layers of the Schwann cell cytoplasm. The area covered by the Schwann cell is known as the internode 10 General As already pointed out above, the case history is the basis of the clinical examination. Before assessing the patient in detail, the general examination examination may give clues to underlying disease (e. Skin changes to watch for include signs of vasculitis, café-au-lait spots, patchy changes from leprosy or radiation, and the characteristic changes associated with dermatomyositis. Neuromuscular clinical phenomenology Motor function Motor dysfunction is one of the most prominent features of neuromuscular disease. The patient’s symptoms may include weakness, fatigue, muscle cramps, atrophy, and abnormal muscle movements like fasciculations or myo- kymia. Weakness often results in disability, depending on the muscle groups involved. Depending on the onset and progression, weakness may be acute and debilitating, or may remain discrete for a long time. As a rule, lower extremity weakness is noticed earlier due to difficulties in climbing stairs or walking. The distribution of weakness is characteristic for some diseases, and proximal and distal weakness are generally associated with different etiologies. Fluctuation of muscle weakness is often a sign of neuromuscular junction disorders.
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