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Until the medical experts were willing to explore outside their own knowledge base purchase 100mg lady era with mastercard menstrual toxic shock syndrome, the case of Four Corners remained unsolved trusted 100 mg lady era pregnancy yellow discharge. This story, documented by the CDC’s Special Pathogens Branch, involved a young, physically ﬁt Navajo man who was admitted to the hospital suf- fering from shortness of breath and died almost immediately thereafter. It was discovered that this young man’s ﬁancée had died with the same symp- toms only a few days earlier. A series of laboratory tests failed to identify any known pathogen, including the one that caused bubonic plague in the Mid- dle Ages. The Special Pathogens Branch of the CDC was notiﬁed, and the state health departments of all four states—as well as the University of New Mex- ico School of Medicine—became involved in trying to solve what rapidly became an outbreak of the mysterious disease. During the ensuing weeks, as additional cases were reported and many people died, physicians and other scientiﬁc experts worked intensively to narrow down a list of suspected causes. These included exposure to herbicides or the possibility of a new type of inﬂuenza virus. Finally, the virologists at the CDC linked this pul- monary syndrome with a previously unidentiﬁed type of hantavirus. Researchers examined lung tissue samples from people who had died years earlier from an unidentiﬁed lung disease with similar symptoms. They esti- mated the ﬁrst known outbreak of this particular disease to be as early as 1959. Finally, someone had the bright idea of directly consulting with an out- side, nonmedical source—the Navajos themselves. Interestingly enough, while the nationally renowned medical experts did not recognize this virus, the Navajos at once identiﬁed the disease which, while unnamed, was doc- umented in their cultural records. Long ago, the Navajos had discovered a link between this virus and the animals involved in the dissemination of the hantavirus—mice. In fact, some of the Navajo elders had actually predicted the 1993 outbreak as well as earlier ones that took place in 1918 and 1933–34. The Navajo records reﬂected that each of these outbreaks had followed increases in rainfall, which subsequently resulted in larger piñon crops and accompanying increases in the numbers of mice feeding on them. The moral of the story is talk to everyone, scrutinize everything, and keep an open mind! As a mystery malady sufferer, you should seek as many alternative ideas from as many different sources as you have available. Medical problem solving, particularly as it relates to mystery mal- adies, cannot be limited to only the “recognized” experts. Give yourself per- mission to think creatively, look at everything, and consult everyone, including sources that are not necessarily medical in nature. We have been surprised by the consistency with which clinical solu- tions, especially in the case of mystery maladies, have come from places we least expected. If you keep an open mind, you make yourself available to help from all possible sources. And if you are open enough to allow your own creative thinking to emerge as you work through the Eight Steps for Self-Diagnosis, you are sure to help yourself. Becoming Your Own Medical Detective Diagnosing a mystery malady is much like solving a crime. The primary goal of any detective academy is to train ofﬁcers to become capable and pro- ﬁcient investigators. While the crimes themselves may vary from burglary to homicide, the basic investigative techniques used to solve the crimes remain constant. Similarly, the exact nature of your mystery malady (whether it is gastrointestinal, dermatological, or neurological) is irrelevant for the purposes of self-diagnosis; the medical investigative techniques pre- sented here will apply to all of them. Naturally, at different times during the investigation (whether it is criminal or medical), consultants with speciﬁc areas of expertise will be required, but the investigative method will not vary. Here’s what you generally need to know about basic criminal investi- gation: detectives, in responding to a crime scene, are trained to secure the entire immediate and surrounding area to preserve it. The investigative team then canvasses the scene, collecting and documenting the primary evidence of what’s present or absent at the time of their arrival. That evidence includes the location of all actual and potential witnesses, as well as any physical evidence. Refraining from judgment will be equally important for you, as we will discuss in the next chapter.
Many parents are concerned that there is an underlying organic cause for their child’s headache order lady era 100mg with visa menstrual bleeding for a month, and unless these fears are dispelled purchase 100mg lady era with mastercard pregnancy lingerie, treatment plans are often unsuccessful. Patients and parents are much more likely to accept a treatment plan if they believe the diagnosis. Therefore, it is important to spend time with the patient and the parents explaining the diagnosis and the disorder. This needs to be done at a level that the child and parents can understand. Reading materials, booklets, brochures, diaries, and videos can help teach the patient and their families about what to expect from their disorder, how to recognize an attack and management goals. Ongoing education should be part of every ofﬁce visit with emphasis on lifestyle modiﬁcation, trigger avoidance, and treatment strategies. Expectation management is also important, so that patients and families will recognize treatment success and failure. Patient participation is instrumental in treatment plan success, especially regarding teenagers who may not comply with a treatment plan that they do not agree with. Adolescents and 231 232 Pearlman teenagers often need to feel like they are part of the decision-making process. This can include dosage formulations, routes of administration, or types of medication. For the purposes of this chapter, I will limit my discussion to the abortive therapy of migraine rather than prevention. Nonpharmacological Therapies and Lifestyle Modiﬁcation Nonpharmacologic therapies may be well received in younger patients, including adolescents. Resting in a dark room, using an ice pack, and playing quiet music can be beneﬁcial. Basic lifestyle modiﬁcations may be reinforced in adolescents such as implementing regular sleeping patterns. Regular meals, consistent sleep patterns, and routine exercise may be simple life-style changes that can improve adolescent and childhood headaches. Stress is often a factor in children and adoles- cents with migraine; however, stress factors differ in children vs. School stress can include anxiety about workload, grades, and relationships with peers. Many children are overextended with extracurricular activities, and they may not have time to complete their schoolwork or time to relax and enjoy a little social or leisure activ- ity. For some children, reducing the number and frequency of after-school activities allows them to focus on schoolwork, perform well, sleep regularly, and participate in leisure activities. Pharmacological Treatment Medications used in the acute treatment of migraine attacks can be divided into two major categories: migraine speciﬁc and migraine nonspeciﬁc therapies. Studies are available supporting use of several of these medications for treatment of migraine. However, further study is warranted for all medications, with speciﬁc attention needed for dosing strategies. Common nonspeciﬁc acute medications are listed in Table 1 and available migraine-speciﬁc therapies with their formulations and avail- able doses are detailed in Table 2. Scientiﬁc Evidence There is limited clinical evidence for nonspeciﬁc acute therapies for treatment of migraine in children and adolescents. Hamalainen and colleagues compared Table 1 Nonspeciﬁc Medications for Acute Migraine Therapy Medication Suggested dose Acetaminophen 15 mg=kg up to 1000 mg Nonsteroidal anti-inﬂammatory drugs (NSAIDs) Ibuprofen 10 mg=kg up to 800 mg Naproxen sodium 10 mg=kg up to 400 mg Narcotics Codeine 0. Each child headaches was treated with acetaminophen (15 mg=kg=dose), ibuprofen (10 mg=kg=dose), and placebo. Aceta- minophen and ibuprofen were statistically signiﬁcantly more efﬁcacious than pla- cebo, and ibuprofen was more efﬁcacious than acetaminophen. There were 45 children in the ibuprofen arm and 39 children in the placebo arm. Headache response at 2 hr was signiﬁcantly higher in the ibuprofen arm (76% of attacks) compared to placebo (53% of attacks, p ¼ 0. Only one child in the ibuprofen arm needed rescue medication compared to 15 in the placebo arm (p < 0. However, caution must be used in the use of nonsteroidal anti- inﬂammatory drugs (NSAIDs) due to the risk of rebound headache (otherwise known as transformed migraine), which can occur with perhaps as little as two to three doses of medication per week. There are several studies examining the efﬁcacy and tolerability of sumatriptan in children under 12 years of age.
I’d tried desperately to make sure she didn’t come to the discussion order lady era 100 mg on-line menopause xerostomia, but there was nothing I could do order lady era 100mg free shipping womens health zymbiotix. Sure enough, throughout the discus- sion if someone said something which was against com- 84 / PRACTICAL RESEARCH METHODS pany policy she would contradict them or say that it simply wasn’t true. I had to go and see each person after the group and I got some really interesting information when the supervisor wasn’t present. But of course it wasn’t re- corded properly and I was unsure of how I could use that information in my research. I wanted to arrange another group, but I just knew it would be impossible without the supervisor present. In the end I had to for- get about that place and hold another focus group in another factory. X Visit the venue and check it is free from background noises, distractions and interruptions. X Telephone participants the day before the focus group to check they’re still intending to participate. X Arrive at the venue early and arrange the seating in a way which will suit the group. HOW TO CONDUCT FOCUS GROUPS/ 85 X Lay out refreshments away from the recorder. X Introduce yourself; explain what the group is about, what is expected of the participants, who the research is for and what will happen to the results. X Discuss issues of conﬁdentiality, anonymity and perso- nal disclosure. X Thank participants and give them your name and con- tact number in case they wish to follow up any of the issues with you. Too often researchers rush into designing a questionnaire only to ﬁnd that it is not yielding the type of information they require. DECIDING WHICH QUESTIONNAIRE TO USE If you’re sure that a questionnaire is the most appropriate method for your research, you need to decide whether you intend to construct a closed-ended, open-ended or combi- nation questionnaire. In open questions respondents use their own words to answer a question, whereas in closed questions prewritten response categories are provided (see Table 9) Also, you need to think about whether your ques- tionnaire is to be self-administered, that is, the respondent ﬁlls it in on his own, away from the researcher, or whether it is to be interviewer administered. Self-administered ques- tionnaires could be sent through the post, delivered in per- son or distributed via the internet. It is also important to think about the analysis of your questionnaire at this stage as this could inﬂuence its design (see Chapter 11). Respondents tend to feel that Respondents can only answer they have been able to speak in a way which may not their mind. In self-administered Is quick and easy for questionnaires, respondents respondents to tick boxes – might not be willing to write might be more likely to a long answer and decide to answer all the questions. How do you know the meaning of a blank answer when you come to the analysis? Can use open questions to Can include a section at the ﬁnd out all the possible end of a closed-ended responses before designing a questionnaire for people to closed-ended questionnaire. HOW TO CONSTRUCT QUESTIONNAIRES/ 89 WORDING AND STRUCTURE OF QUESTIONS When constructing each question think about the words you use. Try not to use words which may have a double mean- ing or be misinterpreted, as some words have diﬀerent meanings for diﬀerent groups of people. And, above all, avoid questions which will cause annoyance, frustration, oﬀence, embarrassment or sadness. You should never make someone feel uncomfortable, for what- ever reason, as a result of ﬁlling in your questionnaire. Check that a question is not double-barrelled, that is, two ques- tions in one. Also, avoid negative questions – the type which have ‘not’ in them as this can be confusing, especially when a respondent is asked to agree or disagree. X Make sure that your questions don’t contain some type of prestige bias. This phrase refers to questions which could embarrass or force respondents into giving a false answer.
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