By N. Vatras. West Coast University.

Visualization is based on topographic maps projected on the scalp of a 3-D head model cytotec 200mcg discount medicine 968. We present here the use of soni®cation for re®ning temporal cues or introducing new information channels in the human±computer interface cytotec 200 mcg without prescription symptoms narcissistic personality disorder. In addition to visualization, which gives predominantly spatial distribution, acoustic rendering improves temporal cues. A novel method of soni®cation implements modulation of natural sound patterns to re¯ect certain features of processed data, and creates a pleasant acoustic environment. We used the global vigilance index as a warning signal for drowsiness during EEG analysis. Our multimodal interactive environment for biomedical data presentation is based on a VRML head model with soni®cation used to emphasize temporal dimension of selected visualized scores. We applied VRML language as a standard tool for VR applications in the Internet environment (16). The Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) is a ®le format for describing interactive 3-D objects and worlds, applicable on the Internet, intranets, and local client systems. VRML is also intended to be a universal interchange format for in- tegrated 3-D graphics and multimedia. VRML is capable of representing static and animated dynamic 3-D and multimedia objects with hyperlinks to other media such as text, sounds, movies, and images. VRML browsers, as well as authoring tools for the creation of VRML ®les, are widely available for many di¨erent platforms. Therefore, we picked VRML as the platform for Internet- based information systems. VR systems already employ e½cacy of auditory and tactile techniques for extending visualization and creating immersive environments. Bernsen (17) proposed a model of human ±computer interface with the following layers: Physical representation, input/ Output representation, and internal computer representation. For the input, it is abstraction and interpretation, and for the output representation and rendering. The physical input media are kinaesthetics (body movement input), acoustics (voice input), and graphics (video capture). For example, movement of the ®nger generated on an input device (key- board) is a physical representation, pressed character keys. During the abstrac- tion phase, larger symbolic forms, like words and numbers, are recognized. To retrieve the concept behind the representation, the computer uses an interpre- tation. On the output side, the ®rst transformation process is the representation of the information using some representation modality. For instance, it is possible to present text using di¨erent modalities: narration, written text, moving text, moving lips (possibility to lip-reading), and haptic text such as Braille. The second trans- formation output process is rendering to the representation that the output device can handle. Technology and tools for multimodal presentation are commercially avail- able owing to the progress of multimedia and VR hardware and software. The success of VR applications mostly depends on the interaction paradigm of the user interface design space (8). Unfortunately, multimedia and VR technology applied in the human±computer interface does not guarantee a successful presentation. Limited resources of previous-generation information systems established the concept of optimal resource use, which implies nonredundancy. As a con- sequence, conventional applications still rely on the principle of using minimal resources to mediate the information. Simultaneous presentation of the same information in di¨er- ent modalities creates a seamless loss of resources. For example, using mouse as pointing device we are not aware of additional sensory modalities used as feedback: We see the cursor movement, perceive the hand position, and hear the mouse click. Redundancy of the human±computer interface should be realized using a multimodal presentation. The main issue in the design of multimodal presen- tation is the level of redundancy.

buy cytotec 100 mcg free shipping

cytotec 200 mcg free shipping

For example buy cytotec 200mcg otc treatment centers near me, individuals who are sedentary can overload their systems by walking at a faster pace than normal purchase cytotec 100 mcg with visa medicine lake mt. Individuals who have been more active for a period of time will require their activity overload to be set at a higher inten- sity and/or to work for longer periods. Gradually, as the individual adjusts to the exercise, subsequent exercise will need to be increased in order to continue to achieve overload. This process is known as progressive overload, and it should continue until the individual’s training goals are achieved. In order to achieve this overload, the exercise pre- scriber must consider the FITT (E) or FITT (A) principle. This principle describes the relationship between frequency, intensity, time and type of exer- cise, and it is an essential tool when prescribing effective exercise. Exercise prescription must be individualised to increase the likelihood of enjoyment (E) and/or adherence (A). FITT (E) and (A) stand for the following: F = FREQUENCY = number of days per week I = INTENSITY = exertion required T = TIME = minutes per day T = TYPE = specific activity (E) = ENJOYMENT (A) = ADHERENCE CARDIAC REHABILITATION PHASE III OVERLOAD Frequency Early studies into phase III cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programmes were based on exercise/education sessions that ran three days per week for eight weeks or longer (Jolliffe, et al. Various studies have been carried out to determine the optimum frequency for cardiac rehabilitation programmes. There is still on-going debate around this topic, but recent literature has shown that two–three times per week, for a minimum of eight weeks, is sufficient to achieve physiological and psychosocial adaptations (SIGN, 2002). It should be Exercise Prescription 105 emphasised that for patients to gain the optimum physiological and psy- chosocial benefits they will require prolonged exposure to exercise. Thus phase III should be considered as the minimum time for these changes to occur. The patients and significant others should be strongly encouraged to maintain exercise into phase IV. How and where phase III programmes are delivered will vary, but they are commonly held in a hospital or, more recently, in the community. The common goal is to encourage life-long adherence to improving and maintain- ing the individual’s exercise habits. By individualising exercise prescription and involving the patients in the exercise consultation process (see Chapter 8), they are more likely to enjoy (E) and adhere (A) on a long-term basis. Benefits to health and fitness can only be achieved if exercise levels are maintained. Intensity One of the aims of a cardiac rehabilitation programme is to improve cardio- vascular fitness and functional capacity. How hard an individual works to achieve this improvement will be dependent on the individual’s current exer- cise ability, motivation and choice of exercise. Current guidelines recommend that the benefits of a cardiac rehabilitation programme will be gained when exercise intensity is low-to-moderate and designed to suit a range of fitness levels (SIGN, 2002). Recommended intensity for cardiac patients is 60–75% HRmax or 40–60% HRRmax and 12–15 RPE. This will vary according to the risk stratification of the patient, determined during the individual’s initial assessment (as described in Chapter 2) and the agreed goals of the patient. Individuals with diminished functional capacity, or who have been identified as a higher risk, should start at a lower intensity (60% HRmax), and progress as able, whereas fitter or lower risk individuals can often work between 65 and 75% HRmax. Beta-blockers reduce the sub-maximal and maximal HR, so this will have to be taken into account when developing individualised training zones (see Chapter 3). Increasing intensity Depending on the patient, progression of intensity should be guided by the goals of the patient, vocational needs and their risk stratification. When work rate is chosen to increase intensity this can be indicated when there is a notice- able decrease in both HR (>5 beats·min-1) and RPE (≥1. In addition, observation by the exercise leader of the patient, the ease or difficulty of performing the class can add to the decision to increase intensity. The methods include the following: • maximal heart rate or peak heart rate; • Karvonen (Karvonen, et al. As described above, there is a variety of methods for determining the correct exercise intensity a participant should aim to achieve.

cheap cytotec 200mcg visa

buy cytotec 100mcg

The mark of a good camouflage is that it will not be recognized for what it is cytotec 200mcg with mastercard symptoms uti in women, that no one will know that something is being hidden purchase 200 mcg cytotec free shipping treatment trends. Virtually no one suffering from them thinks that these pain syndromes are related to emotional factors. On the contrary, almost everyone thinks they are due to injury or a variety of congenital and degenerative abnormalities of the spine. There is another group of disorders that are part of the TMS repertoire and are thought to be due to soft The Psychology of TMS 49 tissue pathology (fibromyalgia, fibrositis, myofasciitis, among others), but these too are attributed to injury, muscle incompetence and the like—the perfect camouflage. As long as the person’s attention remains focused on the pain syndrome, there is no danger that the emotions will be revealed. It has been a recurrent observation of mine that the more painful the repressed emotion, the more severe the pain of TMS has been. The patient who is found to be harboring enormous anger as a result of childhood abuses, for example, usually has severe, disabling pain, and the pain disappears only when that person has an opportunity to express the terrible, festering rage that has occupied his or her unconscious for years—another example of the potential of anger to initiate the pain of TMS. EQUIVALENTS OF TMS As has been suggested, other physical disorders may serve the same purpose as TMS. Here is a list of some of the most common ones: Pre-ulcer states Tension headache Peptic ulcer Migraine headache Hiatus hernia Eczema Spastic colon Psoriasis Irritable bowel syndrome Acne, hives Hay fever Dizziness Asthma Ringing in the ears Prostatitis Frequent urination All of these disorders should be treated by one’s regular physician. Though they may be serving a psychological purpose they must be investigated and treated medically. The more that practitioners identify them as “purely physical” the more they assist in the defense mechanism, which means the continuation of the pain, ulcer, headache or whatever is going on. Physical (as opposed to psychological) defenses against repressed emotions are undoubtedly the most common because they are so successful. For example, excellent drugs have been found to reverse the pathology of peptic ulcer. One man in his midforties told me that ten years before he had started to have trouble with his low back; after many years it was relieved by surgery. A few months after the operation he began to have stomach ulcer problems, and that went on for almost two years. Finally it stopped and shortly thereafter the patient began to have neck and shoulder pain; it had been going on for almost two years and so he had come to see me. The back surgery and ulcer treatment didn’t alleviate his basic problem; they merely acted as placebos and mandated a shift in the location of his physical symptoms. There has been a decline in the incidence of peptic ulcer in the United States and Canada over the past twenty to thirty years, due in part to the effective drugs that have been developed. For a better explanation, however, I am indebted to columnist Russell Baker, who asked in one of his Sunday columns in the New York Times Magazine (August 16, 1981), “Where Have All The Psychology of TMS 51 the Ulcers Gone? The article set me to speculating that since everyone, doctors and laymen alike, had come to realize that ulcers really meant tension, they no longer served the purpose of hiding tension, so fewer people developed them. Could this be the reason why neck, shoulder and back pains have become so common in recent years? Is it possible that these are now much better hiding places for tension than the stomach? MIND AND BODY It is my impression that virtually any organ or system in the body can be used by the mind as a defense against repressed emotionality. These include disorders of the immune system, such as hay fever, or frequent respiratory or genitourinary infections. An academic urologist of my acquaintance has said that over 90 percent of his cases of prostatitis are due to tension. I have a patient who suffers from constant dry mouth, the result of tension- induced constriction of his salivary ducts. Laryngitis may be of emotional origin; ophthalmologists tell us that tension-induced visual difficulties are common, and on and on. To repeat, all symptoms should be thoroughly investigated to rule out structural, infectious or neoplastic processes. While it is wise to rule out so-called organic disorders, the diagnosis of psychophysiologic conditions should be made positively and not by exclusion. The Role of Fear in TMS Severity of TMS is measured not only by the intensity of the pain but by the degree of physical disability that exists. Disability may be more important than pain because it defines the individual’s ability to function personally, professionally, socially and athletically. In the long run fear and preoccupation with physical restrictions are more effective as a psychological defense than pain.

10 of 10 - Review by N. Vatras
Votes: 292 votes
Total customer reviews: 292