By U. Phil. Hesser College.
Every few hours you have Branxton-Hicks contractions that can be quite uncomfortable and sometimes wake you at night cheap super viagra 160 mg without a prescription erectile dysfunction lack of desire, but they always fade away discount super viagra 160 mg fast delivery impotence exercise. Your back aches, and you are going to the toilet every hour because your bladder has nowhere to expand. Suddenly you notice that you have lost some bloodstained fluid through the vagina, and the contractions are worse than usual. You have passed the mucus plug that seals the cervix during pregnancy, and if a lot of fluid is lost, you may have ruptured the membranes around the baby as well. When you find that two contractions have occurred only five to seven minutes apart, it is time to be taken to hospital or the birthing centre. This stage will last for about 12 hours with a first pregnancy, but will be much shorter (4 to 8 hours) with subsequent pregnancies. By the time the obstetrician calls in to see how you are progressing, the contractions are occurring every three or four minutes. The obstetrician examines you internally to check how far the cervix (the opening into the womb) has opened. A fully dilated cervix is about 10 cm in diameter, and you may hear the doctors and nurses discussing the cervix dilation and measurement. In a typical hospital delivery room, white drapes hide bulky pieces of equipment, there are large lights on the ceiling, shiny sinks on one wall, and often a cheerful baby poster above them. The breathing exercises you were taught at the antenatal classes should prove remarkably effective in helping you with the more severe contractions. Even so, the combined backache and sharp stabs of pain may need to be relieved by an injection offered by the nurse. Your cervix will be fully dilated by this stage, and you are now entering the second stage of labour, which will last from only a few minutes to 60 minutes or more. The contractions are much more intense than before, but you should push only at the time of a contraction, as pushing at other times is wasted effort. Another push, and another, and another, and then a sudden sweeping, elating relief, followed by a healthy cry from your new baby. A minute or so after the baby is born the umbilical cord, which has been the lifeline between you and the baby for the last nine months, is clamped and cut. About five minutes after the baby is born, the doctor will urge you to push again and help to expel the placenta (afterbirth). Labour commences when the cervix starts to dilate and finishes with delivery of the baby and placenta. The exact triggers that start the labour of pregnancy are unknown, but the hormones responsible come from the pituitary gland in the brain. There is some evidence that labour can be induced in the last week or two of pregnancy by an orgasm after sexual intercourse or by the constant stimulation of the nipples. The vagina (birth canal) is a curved cylinder and the baby’s head must move through various positions in order to pass through it. This is followed by flexion of the head, descent of the head, internal rotation, extension of the neck, external rotation and finally expulsion. These movements will differ if the baby’s head is in a different position to the normal one of coming out with the back of the head at the front of the mother. A line between the spines on the ischial bone, which can be felt by a doctor when examining the vagina, is station zero. It last on average 14 hours in a woman having her first baby and seven hours in a woman who has already had a baby. In second stage the baby’s head descends further into the pelvis and lasts until the birth of the baby with forceful contractions of the uterus lasting from 60 to 90 seconds every two to five minutes. The patient develops an almost unbearable urge to push, which should be resisted until it can be timed with a contraction. The second stage lasts on average one hour in a first time mother and twenty minutes in a second time mother. The third stage of labour lasts from the birth of the baby to the expulsion of the placenta (afterbirth), which takes ten to fifteen minutes. The baby moves down through the vagina and is expelled from the uterus by the force exerted by the powerful muscle contractions in the uterus, and is assisted by contractions of the muscles in the wall of the abdomen and in the diaphragm as the mother voluntarily pushes. After the baby is delivered further contractions of the uterus over the next few minutes cause the placenta to separate from the wall of the uterus and be expelled. The muscles of the uterus may not produce sufficiently strong contractions, or may not contract regularly.
Poor nutrition increases the body’s vulnerability to infections purchase super viagra 160mg on-line erectile dysfunction treatment testosterone replacement, and infections in their turn make poor nutrition even worse generic 160 mg super viagra amex statistics of erectile dysfunction in india. Inadequate dietary intake lowers immune system functioning and reduces the body’s ability to ﬁght infections. Poor nutrition is therefore likely to increase the incidence, severity and length of infections. Symptoms that accompany infections such as loss of appetite, diarrhoea and fever lead to further reduced food intake, poor nutrient absorption, nutrient loss and altered metabolism. All of these contribute to weight loss and growth faltering, which in turn further weaken the immune system. Vitamin and mineral deﬁciencies may occur at a time when a person actually has increased nutritional needs because of infections, viral replication and poor nutrient absorption. The whole body develops reduced immune functioning and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections. The disease itself may make the absorption of energy and other nutrients less efﬁcient. Possible increase in the need for other nutrients because of symptoms such as anaemia. You will be able to give nutritional care both at health post level and during home-based care. This gives you the opportunity to help them maintain their health for as long as possible. If you see that a person is losing weight, you can suggest ways of increasing their nutrition intake so they do not have nutrition deﬁciencies which can lead to a weak immune system. Sometimes the use of traditional therapies to boost nutrition and maintain strength is also really important. You should also counsel them on the seven ways to maintain their strength that you have just learnt about. Breastfeeding plays a key role in optimally supplying all the nutrients and energy needs of infants in the ﬁrst six months of life. Between six and twelve, breastmilk contributes to 50% of the infant’s energy requirement and remains an important source of vitamins and minerals. However, replacement feeding, if not carried out properly, is associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality at a young age. Exclusive breastfeeding: Giving only breastmilk and no other drinks or foods, not even water, with the exception of drops or syrups consisting of vitamins, mineral supplements or medicine. Exclusive replacement feeding: The use of breastmilk substitute totally avoiding breastmilk. Complementary feeding: Addition of semi-solid or solid food in addition to breastmilk or formula at six months. Mothers who are able to give exclusive replacement feeding can usually do this successfully if a number of factors are in place. The current estimate for formula (without including fuel, water, mother’s time, etc. Birr per month Sustainable: The mother has access to the continuous and uninterrupted supply of all ingredients and commodities needed to implement the feeding option safely for as long as the infant needs it. In this section we will discuss how you can help mothers decide the preferred feeding options for her child. First, as you have learnt, breastmilk is very important for the survival of the child. The high risk of malnutrition and diarrhoeal diseases are very common in children who are not breastfed, especially in resource-limited countries. Therefore you must counsel parents to avoid mixed feeding and continue either with exclusive breastfeeding or exclusive replacement feeding. Exclusive replacement feeding means that the mother completely avoids breastfeeding her baby. However, as you read earlier, there are risks as well as beneﬁts associated with exclusive replacement feeding.
The study found that: 65% of palliative patients were referred for physiotherapy The most common interventions were gait re-education discount 160 mg super viagra visa impotence def, transfer training buy super viagra 160 mg amex erectile dysfunction louisville ky, and exercise. Psychosocial issues in palliative care Psychosocial care addresses the psychological experiences of loss and facing death for patients. It involves the spiritual beliefs, culture, and values of those concerned and the social factors that influence their experience (Jeffery, 2003). Psychosocial assessment Healthcare professionals need to assess individual strengths, coping styles and stress. Difficulties in communication are among the most frequently reported problems of cancer patients (Wright et al 2002). Patient satisfaction is higher when clinicians: Smiled a lot Used an expressive tone of voice Increased eye contact and face Leaned forward Gestured (Griffith et al 2003) Listening It is important to actively listen to the patient. The important behavioural aspects of effective listening are: S-O-L-E-R Sit squarely in relation to the patient Maintain an Open position Lean slightly towards the client Maintain Eye contact with the patient Relax around the patient (Egan 1990) Barriers to effective listening: Temptation to tell them what to do, as opposed to letting them share their feelings Not enough time to listen, share feelings, experiences A feeling of vulnerability and fear of what the patient may ask (Donoghue and Siegel 2005) Responding to difficult emotions 1) Acute emotional distress Acute stress disorder is present in almost one third of patients after diagnosis (Kangas et al 2007). A distressed patient may be one who is demanding, unable to make decisions or angry (Bylund et al 2006; Knobf 2007). Patients exhibit a range of emotions post diagnosis including, mood changes such as: Worry Concerns with body image Sadness Sexuality Anger Employment Fear of recurrence Relationship issues 119 Responses of the clinician to emotional distress Listen; ask open ended questions and show care, compassion and interest. Clinicians meeting anger may feel threatened, become defensive or, indeed, angry in response. These reactions are generally considered unhelpful as they are likely to result in an escalation of the patients anger (Cunningham, 2004). Develop a shared understanding of the experience, and develop shared goals from this point. After being told their diagnosis, approximately 20% of patients deny they have cancer; 26% partially suppress awareness of implementing death and 8% demonstrate complete denial (Greer, 1992). Strategies and communication skills for clinicians Exclude misunderstanding or inadequate information Determine whether denial requires management Explore emotional background to fears Provide information tailored to the needs of the patient and clarify goals of care Be aware of cultural and religious issues Monitor the shifting sand of denial as the disease progresses Aim to increase a person’s self esteem, dignity, moral and life meaning (Greer 1992; Watson et al 1984; Erbil et al 1996; Schofield et al 2003) Useful Link for communication skills in cancer care: http://pro. Other Programmes to Support Cancer Patients Travel2Care scheme This scheme helps patients who are suffering from genuine financial hardship with travel costs due to travelling to a cancer centre. Care to drive programme Care to Drive is a volunteer-led transport initiative in which the Irish Cancer Society recruits and trains volunteers to drive patients to and from their chemotherapy appointments. Tax relief can also be claimed back on travelling costs for insured cancer patients. Dengue Fever 1 Introduction Dengue has a wide spectrum of clinical presentations, often with unpredictable clinical evolution and outcome. Reported case fatality rates are approximately 1%, but in India, Indonesia and Myanmar, focal outbreaks away from the urban areas have reported case- fatality rates of 3-5%. To observe for the following Danger signs and report immediately for hospital admission • Bleeding: - red spots or patches on the skin - bleeding from nose or gums - vomiting blood - black-coloured stools - heavy menstruation/vaginal bleeding • Frequent vomiting • Severe abdominal pain • Drowsiness, mental confusion or seizures • Pale, cold or clammy hands and feet • Difficulty in breathing Out -patient laboratory monitoring- as indicated • Haematocrit • White cell count • Platelet count 5. If not tolerated, start intravenous isotonic fluid therapy with or without dextrose at maintenance. If the haematocrit remains the same, continue with the same rate for another 2–4 hours and reassess. If the vital signs/haematocrit is worsening increase the fluid rate and refer immediately. Start with 5–7 ml/kg/hour for 1–2 hours, then reduce to 3–5 ml/kg/hr for 2–4 hours, and then reduce to 2–3 ml/kg/hr or less according to the clinical response. If the haematocrit remains the same or rises only minimally, continue with the same rate (2–3 ml/kg/hr) for another 2–4 hours. If the vital signs are worsening and haematocrit is rising rapidly, increase the rate to 5–10 ml/kg/hour for 1–2 hours. Reassess the clinical status, repeat the haematocrit and review fluid infusion rates accordingly. Reduce intravenous fluids gradually when the rate of plasma leakage decreases towards the end of the critical phase. This is indicated by urine output and/or oral fluid intake that is/are adequate, or haematocrit decreasing below the baseline value in a stable patient. Parameters that should be monitored include hourly vital signs and peripheral perfusion.
Tey are and setting order super viagra 160mg free shipping impotence blood pressure, treatments or other interventions purchase super viagra 160mg erectile dysfunction treatment kerala, outcome applicable to various patient-care settings, including family- measures assessed, reported fndings, and weaknesses and biases planning clinics, private physicians’ ofces, managed care orga- in study design and analysis. Telephone: 404-639-1898; therapy for each individual disease: 1) treatment of infection Fax: 404-639-8610; kgw2@cdc. Te consultants then providers have a unique opportunity to provide education and assessed whether the questions identifed were relevant, ranked counseling to their patients (5,6). As part of the clinical inter- them in order of priority, and answered the questions using view, health-care providers should routinely and regularly obtain the available evidence. In addition, the consultants evaluated sexual histories from their patients and address management of the quality of evidence supporting the answers on the basis of risk reduction as indicated in this report. When more history is an example of an efective strategy for eliciting infor- than one therapeutic regimen is recommended, the sequence is mation concerning fve key areas of interest (Box 1). Additional information is available are undergoing treatment), counseling that encourages absti- at www. Gardasil also prevents genital the United States is tested electronically for holes before pack- warts. Rates of condom breakage during sexual intercourse and recommended with either vaccine, as is catch-up vaccination for withdrawal are approximately two broken condoms per 100 females aged 13–26 years. Male condoms made of materials other than latex are avail- In addition, hepatitis A and B vaccines are recommended for able in the United States. In heterosexual serodiscordant relationships called “natural” condoms or, incorrectly, “lambskin” condoms). Communicating the following recommendations reported following the protocol for the use of these products can help ensure that patients use male condoms correctly: suggested that consistent use of the diaphragm plus gel might • Use a new condom with each sex act (i. However, a recent randomized trial of approximately for use in the United States consisted of a lubricated polyure- 9,000 women failed to show any protective efect (46). Sexually active possible after unprotected sex, but have some efcacy as long women who use hormonal contraception (i. Women who take oral contraceptives and method is not advisable for a woman who may have untreated are prescribed certain antibiotics should be counseled about cervical gonorrhea or chlamydia, who is already pregnant, or potential interactions (7). However, across Partner management refers to a continuum of activities trials, reductions in chlamydia prevalence at follow-up were designed to increase the number of infected persons brought approximately 20%; reductions in gonorrhea at follow-up were to treatment and disrupt transmission networks. Clinical-care providers partner management intervention has been shown to be more can obtain this information and help to arrange for evaluation efective than any other in reducing reinfection rates (72,73). Some programs should also receive health counseling and should be referred have considered partner notifcation in a broader context, for other health services as appropriate. Nevertheless, evaluations of partner notification notifcation eforts have improved case-fnding and illustrated interventions have documented the important contribution transmission networks (74,75). While such eforts are beyond this approach can make to case-fnding in clinical and com- the scope of individual clinicians, support of and collaboration munity contexts (65). In most jurisdictions, such reports are protected by statute Women who are at high risk for syphilis, live in areas from subpoena. Infants should not be discharged from the hospital unless the syphilis serologic status of the mother has Special Populations been determined at least one time during pregnancy and preferably again at delivery. Women the possibility of perinatal infections, and provided access to who were not screened prenatally, those who engage in treatment, if needed. Women found and that timely and appropriate prophylaxis is provided to have chlamydial infection during the frst trimester for their infants. Screening during the pital in which delivery is planned and to the health-care frst trimester might prevent the adverse efects of chla- provider who will care for the newborn. Women aged <25 years are at high- should receive information regarding hepatitis B that est risk for gonorrhea infection. Prophylactic cesarean delivery is not indicated for women who do not have active genital other Tests lesions at the time of delivery. Preventive Services Task prompt parents and guardians to question the costs and reasons Force Recommendation Statement (81); Canadian guidelines on for service provision. Sexual health discussions are based on disease severity and sequelae, prevalence in the should be appropriate for the patient’s developmental level and population, costs, medicolegal considerations (e. However, contributing to this increased risk during adolescence include screening of sexually active young men should be consid- having multiple sexual partners concurrently, having sequential ered in clinical settings associated with high prevalence of sexual partnerships of limited duration, failing to use barrier chlamydia (e. After a claim has been reported, many states and encouraged for those who are sexually active and mandate that health plans provide a written statement to a those who use injection drugs (77,95).
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